Tipikon (Statute)

  Front page of the Greek version of the Tipikon (organization chart), XIIIc.             Page of the Georgian version of the Tipikon, XIIIc.

       When Gregory Bakuriani built the monastery he took care of the life framework, drawn Statute (Tipikon), which determines the course of monastic life. The Statute contains an introduction and 37 chapters (36 in the Greek version) and is one of the most interesting Byzantine documents from the time of Comnenus dynasty. In his own words, Gregory draw up statutes, following this to the holy monastery of “Panagios” (the Most Saint) in Constantinople, whose frequent visitor and admirer was. Pointing natural for every Orthodox Christian motive –
"given in debt ... good God redemption for himself,"
      Gregory justifies his work in ch.1, expressing and is done later wish his bones find peace in the grounds of his monastery. The founder shall determine the organization of life in the monastery - brothers in order to live in "unity and concord." Eating should be always together in the monastery dining room, none of the monks has any right to not only eat away at his cell or elsewhere, but can not even hold court for warm water in his cell. The regime is not very strict; feeding three times a day, provided a daily ration of wine. For each of the monks provided corresponding obedience, and the abbot should be characterized by better care of the monastery brotherhood and property. Selecting the abbot's lifetime, but every year a general meeting of the monastery brotherhood considered his works and if it is determined that is not doing well, it can be replaced. As a good administrator, Gregory carefully examines the issues of the monastery property bequeathed by him and his brother. Do not allow anyone in any occasion, be it a relative of the founder, abbot or monk misappropriates in its favor any ownership of the monastery. Maintenance of the brothers is taken entirely from the monastery providing a certain annual amount (Ruga) for each brother for personal needs, clothes and shoes. Pilgrims and visitors to the monastery have the right to remain in the monastery maintenance three days as a parting gives them food for the journey, and if someone gets sick during their stay at the monastery, remains of treatment in the monasteries hospital to his healing. It is expressly agreed completely independent status of the newly founded monastery (ch.3), and it is especially emphasized his independence from the nearby Plovdiv bishop. So delineated rights of abode were duly approved by imperial royal decrees did made storage in the monastery. Gregory Bakuriani gave detailed lists to the monastery property, movable and immovable - fields, villages, castles, animals, stock - religious and economic (ch.34).
      Because of the will of the founder, the original Charter was signed by him and Jerusalem Patriarch Evtimii that he has been visited, should be kept in perpetuity in the monastery grounds and do not be exported from it. In each case, a copy has been lodged in Constantinople monastery “Panagios”. It was composed in Greek and Georgian languages, law had the Greek version, which was also signed. At present there are no originals preserved, the oldest copies - Greek and Georgian are the XII-XІІІcc. and now on the island of Chios, in the library “Korais”. There are also two later copies of XVIII-XIXcc. One of the Georgian’s in National Library in Sofia and one Greek’s in the library of the Academy in Bucharest.
The Statute has been studied repeatedly and published. His first publication was in 1888. by G.Museos in 1904. Louis Petit has issued Bucharest version. M. Tarhnishvili issued Sofia Georgian version in 1954, hi translated it into Latin. S.G.Kauhchishvili edited Chios Greek version with detailed commentary in 1963. A.Shanidze issued Chios Georgian version translated into Russian in 1971. In 1978 again issued Chios Greek version translated into Russian with a very thorough commentary from V.A.Arutyunova-Fidanyan. In this edition is supported version of Armenian origin of Gregory Bakuriani. The latest edition of the Greek Chios version accurate translated into French was made by Paul Gaultier in 1984. 


Musaeus Stenimachites, Γρηγοριος Πακυπιανος μεγας δομεστικος της Δυσεως και το υπ αυτου τυπικον της Θεοτοκου της Πετριτξονιτισσης, Diss. Iena, Leipzig 1888.

L.Petit, Typikon de Gregoire Pacourianos pour le monastere de Petritzos(Backovo) an Bulgarie, text original, VV 11, Suppl. №1, St.Petersbourg 1904.

M.Tarchnischvili, Typicon Gregorii Pacuriani (Corpus scriptorium christianorum orientalium, vol. 144. Scriptores iberici, tomus 4) Louvain 1954.

А.Г.Шанидзе, Грузинский монастырь в Болгарии и его типик, грузинская редакция типика. Тбилиси, 1971.

В.А.Арутюнова-Фиданян, Типик Григория Бакуриана. Ереван, 1978.

Paul GautierLe typikon du sebaste Gregoire Pakouranos (Revue des Etudes Byzantines), tome 42, annee 1984. Paris, 1984.


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